Posts Tagged ‘tube’

Salmon Tube Flies

Tuesday, October 17th, 2017

By: Justin Maxwell

Salmon tube flies are, as the name suggests, tied up on a tube instead of a standard hook shank. Tubes are thicker than a conventional salmon fly and therefore heavier, which is a feature that many steelhead and salmon fishermen find beneficial. Hook size and style can be optimised to match the location and circumstances in which you intend to fish. Some proponents of tube flies insist that there are also more successful hook-ups with tubes compared to the more traditional long-shanked salmon fly.

Whilst new to many people, tube flies were first deployed some 65 years ago! A lady by the name of Winnie Morawski gets the credit for tying the first tube fly in 1945. A fly tier for Charles Playfair & Company of Aberdeen in Scotland, she conceived the idea while tidying up the turkey quills from her work bench. After trimming the tops and bottoms off, and scraping the insides from the quills, she then dressed the tube she had created. A company client, Dr William Michie, liked the tube fly concept and suggested cut lengths of surgical tubing would be a more durable alternative. In the fishing world, word spreads like wildfire and before long, tube flies were being tied in Norway and Sweden as well as across the United Kingdom. Saltwater tube flies first appeared in the North American Pacific Northwest and were used in Washington State’s Puget Sound way back in the late 1940’s!

In recent years there has been a huge increase in the number of salmon fly patterns, largely based on the introduction of tubes. These can come in any number of different sizes, weights and styles. The use of tubes allows the hook; single, double or treble, barbed or barbless, to be changed when required or when damaged. This provides the angler with a very versatile and durable alternative to standard patterns tied on regular double or treble hooks. Tube material options can also be varied for different water depths and velocities.

Plastic Bodied Tubes

With a neutral weight, flies tied on plastic bodied tubes will fish at the same depth as that dictated by your fly-line. Many fishermen find these useful in many low water situations.

Copper Tubes

Copper is the material most commonly associated with traditional tube flies and copper-tube Salmon flies are available in a very wide range of patterns, in all shapes and sizes.

Tungsten Tubes

With almost twice the density of copper, tungsten tubes are superb for situations where it is imperative that your fly starts fishing at the correct depth as soon as possible after hitting the water. This is as important for low water fishing, when you need to ‘drop’ your fly into a small deep pocket, as it is for heavy and fast water conditions.

Hitch Tubes

Although not widely used in the United Kingdom, the practice of hitching flies is absolutely standard for much of the season in both Iceland and Russia’s Kola Peninsula. Far from being a gimmick, this method of fishing for salmon is absolutely deadly.

Conehead Tubes

Increasingly popular cone-head salmon fly patterns are a must have in any salmon anglers fly box. Made from either brass or tungsten and in a wide range of colours from metallic nickel or silver to fire red they are proven killers.

There has been a relatively recent “awakening” amongst the salmon fly fishing fraternity, and the fly tying industry, to the concept of tubes, especially in North America. Tube flies have been around for some time now, but primarily popular with European salmon anglers. US salmon fishermen have begun successfully fishing various tube fly patterns on the west coast of Alaska, Washington, B.C., and Oregon states. The main problem for salmon and steelhead fishermen wanting to test tube flies in their region has been limited availability in fly shops and limited choices in online fly stores.

This situation is steadily changing, and new patterns are available that are battle-proven in many international destinations European and North American destinations.

About Author:
Justin Maxwell Stuart at has a decade of experience of fishing Atlantic salmon flies in the most inaccessible places on earth, and provides a huge range of premium grade salmon flies for sale at Salar Flies. Ph: +44 (0) 203 239 2022- E:

Splitter Gearbox Vent Tube

Saturday, January 7th, 2017

Vent tube for a splitter gearbox mounted on the rear axle assembly of a four-wheel drive tractor. The vent tube extends into the rear axle assembly, while in fluid flow communication with the lubricating oil in the splitter gearbox, and either breaks a vacuum at a balance hole or permits oil transfer from the splitter gearbox, depending upon which direction the output gears are being driven. The output gears turn at high rpm and cause churning of the oil. The vent tube assembly relieves this condition and thereby significantly reduces parasitic power losses.

Therein is discussed the desirability of integrating all the drives for the input driven components of an articulated four wheel drive tractor into a single gearbox affixed to the rear axle housing of the tractor. The instant invention is an improvement to a splitter gearbox as generally disclosed in the patent.

Accordingly, one object of the present invention is to provide a vent tube that significantly reduces parasitic losses due to the churning of oil by the output gears of a splitter gearbox.

Another object of the present invention is to provide a novel means for reducing parasitic losses in a splitter gearbox.

It is yet another object of this invention to provide an improved splitter gearbox for a four wheel drive, hydrostatically driven tractor which is durable in construction, inexpensive of manufacture, carefree of maintenance, facile in assemblage, and simple and effective in use.

It is a still further object of the instant invention to provide a vent tube for a splitter gearbox mounted on the rear axle assembly of a four-wheel drive tractor. The vent tube extends into the rear axle assembly, while in fluid flow communication with the lubricating oil in the splitter gearbox, and either breaks a vacuum at a balance hole or permits oil transfer from the splitter gearbox, depending upon which direction the output gears are being driven. The output gears turn at high rpm and cause churning of the oil. The vent tube assembly relieves this condition and thereby significantly reduces parasitic power losses.

As a matter of clarification, it should be understood that the output gears otate at generally high speeds during vehicle transport/roading, in the range of 5,000 rpm. When these gears are rotated in one direction, as they would be when tractor is moving rearward, they create a suction, drawing oil into the splitter gearbox from the rear axle that is the hydraulic sump of the vehicle. Too much oil in the splitter gearbox creates churning and constant power losses (parasitic losses). When gears rotate in the opposite direction, i.e., the tractor is moving forward, they create a pumping action and oil is pumped out of the splitter gearbox. Thus, parasitic losses, similar to those described above, are created.

Balance hole is present between the splitter gearbox the rear axle housing to allow oil to drain from gearbox, which is pressure lubed, to the rear axle housing. Hole is located at a level where the output gears and mesh. When the tractor is driven forward, the output gears rotate in such a manner as to pump oil from the gearbox into the rear axle through the balance hole. As oil is drawn into the gearbox, the level increases, covering the gears and creating high parasitic losses due to churning. The vent tube assembly is mounted such that one end of tube covers the balance hole, one end connects to a check valve at the same level as the balance hole, with the free flow direction from the gearbox to the rear axle housing , and leg extends above the oil level L of the rear axle.

When the tractor is driven in reverse, the vent tube assembly breaks the vacuum at the balance hole created by the output gears of the splitter gearbox, thereby not allowing oil to be drawn into the splitter gearbox and keeping the parasitic churning losses low. When the tractor is driven in this direction up an incline, the check valve closes off due to the oil level rising in the splitter gearbox 30/rear axle housing junction and the vent tube then breaks the vacuum created by the output gears of the splitter gearbox as above.

When the tractor is driven forward, the check valve allows the oil that is being pumped by the splitter gearbox output gears through the balance hole, to be drained into the rear axle, keeping the parasitic churning losses low. An additional balance hole may be added as needed to help with the balancing issue.

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Vibrant Tube Lights

Friday, September 16th, 2016

Now that the world is progressing to a more up-to-date yet economic mode of living, things are altered so as to meet with the ever increasing demands. These alterations are also done not just to satisfy human needs but also to rescue and save the world from harmful inventions and creations. Among the grave threats that the world is facing right now is in the effect of mercury-based creations such as thermometers, and fluorescent lights. Mercury thermometers are now being replaced by digital thermometers. Although CFLs were designed to replace the high power consuming incandescent bulbs, its deadly composition makes it a lame choice in lighting solution. To be able to have a better option than CFLs, LED technology introduces LED tube lights that were designed to replace the purpose of tube CFLs and incandescent.
Basically, LED tube lights are just a series connection of various light emitting diodes to come up with a linear form. The construction of light tubes is composed of a group of light emitting diodes connected in reverse and forward bias with the supply. Half of the total number of the bulbs are connected in series and in biased in a forwardly manner with respect to the power supply. On the other hand, the other half is in reverse bias with the supply. The light is so constructed to have a 100% duty or turned ON at all times. The supply is an alternating current; thus during the forward positive half cycle, the forwardly biased group will lit while during the negative half cycle of the sinusoidal AC, those that were reverse biased will lit.
LED tube lights found its use in study lights, cabinet lighting, aesthetic lighting and other practical application of fluorescent tubes. This device produces vibrant and quality lights that its equivalent counterpart can give. More and more customers and clients are employing this state of the art and radical lighting system not just in the aim to produce quality lights but also to have a more economical and environmentally friendly lighting solution. The best advantage of employing this lighting system is the fact that it doesnt contain harmful substances that will just introduce contaminations to the world. The disposal is not a threat to the world.
The practical advantages of employing this technology make it on its way into dominating the lighting industry of the world. To come up with a more economical lighting solution, it was designed to last for a very long period of time that is more than 50,000 hours. Moreover, the need to replacing it constantly is removed. It also doesnt release thermal energy that is at the later time considered pollutants to the world. Above of it all, it only draws a fraction of what its conventional counterpart uses. Truly, LED technology is an intelligent lighting choice.
There is nothing much better than having a single solution to several problems. This is like hitting two birds in one stone. To put it in reality, employing LED technology as the answer to every lighting requirements of the world solves two issues pertaining to the economy and environment.

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Something about Vacuum tube

Wednesday, June 24th, 2015

In electronics, a vacuum tube, electron tube (in North America), or thermionic valve (elsewhere, especially in Britain), reduced to simply “tube” or “valve” in everyday parlance, is a device that relies on the flow of electric current through a vacuum. Vacuum tubes may be used for rectification, amplification, switching, or similar processing or creation of electrical signals. Vacuum tubes rely on thermionic emission of electrons from a hot filament or cathode, that then travel through a vacuum toward the anode (commonly called the plate), which is held at a positive voltage relative to the cathode. Additional electrodes interposed between the cathode and anode can alter the current, giving the tube the ability to amplify and switch. recommend directory: 3528 SMD Flexible Strip with Non-waterproof 5 Meter 300 LEDS.

Vacuum tubes were critical to the development of electronic technology, which drove the expansion and commercialization of radio communication and broadcasting, television, radar, sound reproduction, large telephone networks, analog and digital computers, and industrial process control. Although some of these applications had counterparts using earlier technologies, such as the spark gap transmitter or mechanical computers, it was the invention of the triode vacuum tube and its capability of electronic amplification that made these technologies widespread and practical.

In most applications, vacuum tubes have been replaced by solid-state devices such as transistors and other semiconductor devices. Solid-state devices last much longer, and are smaller, more efficient, more reliable, and cheaper than equivalent vacuum tube devices. However, tubes still find particular uses where solid-state devices have not been developed or are not practical. Tubes are still produced for such applications and to replace those used in existing equipment such as high-power radio transmitters.

Vacuum tubes with two active elements (“diodes”) are used for rectification. Ones with 3 or more elements (“triodes”, “tetrodes”, etc.) are used for amplification, functions which rely on amplification such as oscillators, and switching.

Standard tubes with cathode, grids, and anode are classified in various ways according to requirements. They may be classified by frequency range (audio, radio, vhf, uhf, microwave), power rating (small-signal, audio power, high-power radio transmitting), design purpose (sharp versus remote cutoff; amplifying and switching, control and signal amplification, rectification, mixing, general-purpose versus very low microphonic and low noise audio amplification, and so on). Distinctions are not necessarily sharp; for example similar dual triodes can be used for audio preamplification and as flip-flops in computers, although linearity is important in the former case and long life in the latter.

Other tubes which could be called vacuum tubes have different construction and different functions, such as cathode ray tubes which create a beam of electrons for display purposes (such as the television picture tube) in addition to more specialized functions such as electron microscopy and electron beam lithography. X-ray tubes are also vacuum tubes. Phototubes and photomultipliers also rely on electron flow through a vacuum, though in this case the emission of electrons from the cathode depends on energy from photons rather than thermionic emission. Since these sorts of “vacuum tubes” have functions other than electronic amplification and rectification they are described in their own articles.

There are also varieties of current-conducting tubes filled with one or another gas at a higher or lower pressure; the common fluorescent bulb is a familiar example. Such discharge tubes and cold cathode tubes are not vacuum tubes and are not the subject of this article. However certain types such as the voltage regulator tube and thyristor physically resemble commercial vacuum tubes and fit in sockets designed for vacuum tubes. Their distinctive orange, red, or purple glow during operation betrays the presence of gas; electrons flowing in a vacuum do not produce light within that region. Although not properly termed vacuum tubes, they may still be referred to as “electron tubes” as they do perform electronic functions, and are briefly discussed below under “Special-purpose tubes.” recommend directory: 5050 SMD Flexible Strip with waterproof 5 Meter 150 LEDS.

A vacuum tube consists of two or more electrodes in a vacuum inside an airtight enclosure. Most tubes have glass envelopes, though ceramic and metal envelopes (atop insulating bases) have also been used. The electrodes are attached to leads which pass through the envelope via an airtight seal. On most tubes, the leads, in the form of pins, plug into a tube socket for easy replacement of the tube (tubes were by far the most common cause of failure in electronic equipment, and consumers were expected to be able to replace tubes themselves). Some tubes had an electrode terminating at a top cap which reduced interelectrode capacitance to improve high-frequency performance, kept a possibly very high plate voltage away from lower voltages, and could accommodate one more electrode than allowed by the base.

The earliest vacuum tubes resembled, and in fact evolved from incandescent light bulbs, containing a filament sealed in an evacuated glass envelope. When hot, the filament releases electrons into the vacuum, a process called thermionic emission. A second electrode, the anode or plate, will attract those electrons if it is at a more positive voltage. The result is a net flow of electrons from the filament to plate. However current cannot flow in the reverse direction because the plate is not heated and does not emit electrons. The filament (cathode) has a dual function: it emits electrons when heated; and, together with the plate, it creates an electric field due to the potential difference between them. Such a tube with only two electrodes is termed a diode, and is used for rectification. Since current can only pass in one direction, such a diode (or rectifier) will convert AC to pulsating DC. This can therefore be used in a DC power supply, and is also used as a demodulator of amplitude modulated (AM) radio signals and similar functions.

While early tubes used the directly-heated filament as the cathode, most (but not all) more modern tubes employed indirect heating. A separate element was used for the cathode. Inside the cathode, and electrically insulated from it, was the filament or heater. Thus the heater did not function as an electrode, but simply served to heat the cathode sufficiently for it to emit electrons by thermionic emission. This allowed all the tubes to be heated through a common circuit (which can as well be AC) while allowing each cathode to arrive at a voltage independently of the others, removing an unwelcome constraint on circuit design.

During operation, vacuum tubes require constant heating of the filament thus requiring considerable power even when amplifying signals at the microwatt level. In most amplifiers further power is consumed due to the quiescent current between the cathode and the anode (plate), resulting in heating of the plate. In a power amplifier, heating of the plate can be quite considerable; the tube can be destroyed if driven beyond its safe limits. Since the tube requires a vacuum to operate, convection cooling of the plate is not generally possible (except in special applications where the anode forms a part of the vacuum envelope; this is generally avoided due to the shock hazard from the anode voltage). Thus anode cooling occurs mainly through black-body radiation. recommend directory: 5050 SMD Flexible Strip with non-waterproof 5 Meter 300 LEDS.

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Stack Gas Flow Meter utilizes Torbar averaging pitot tube.

Friday, May 1st, 2015

Stack Gas Flow Meter utilizes Torbar averaging pitot tube.
December 4, 2013 – In addition to Torbar averaging pitot tube flowmeter, FPD581 StackFlowMaster consists of metering probe with optional integral components that include RTD temperature element, 5-valve manifold, multivariable transmitter, and purging …
Read more on ThomasNet News (press release)

systec Controls introduces integrating pitot tube
The company, which specialises in flow meters, manufactures teflon probes with reduced surface resistance for use under extremely corrosive conditions. These probes are particularly corrosion resistant. By doping the material with carbon, static …
Read more on Energy Global

Main Highlights of FRP Tube

Monday, March 16th, 2015

1 Sound characteristic to protect erosion: considering that the primary material of FRP tube is composed of high-mercury unsaturated polyester resin and glass fiber. That can efficiently protect in opposition to the erosion of acid, alkali and salt, or even the polluting water without having dealing, erosive mud, industrial waste h2o and chemical liquid. Commonly, that can guarantee the safe operation of tube.

2 Sound anti-aging element and warmth sturdiness. FRP Cable Trays can be used for a very long time during the temperature array from minus forty to 70 degrees Celsius. The heat-durable resin with special assortment could operate typically during the temperature previously mentioned 200 degrees. For those tubes uncovered inside the air for prolonged time, the UV rays absorption agent might be added within the area to eliminate the radiation from UV rays for the tube, and reduce the ageing means of FRP tube.

3 Sound anti-freezing feature: within the temperature underneath twenty levels Celsius, the frozen tube would not get damaged.

4 Gentle bodyweight, large tense and hassle-free transportation: thread rolling machine is gentle in bodyweight, substantial in energy, robust in versatility and handy for transportation and set up. It’s also an easy task to use branches with basic technology.

5 Sound drinking water pressure provide: it really is with easy inner wall and strong transportation. It could not get scaling and dust. Drinking water fulfills the tiniest resistance.

6 Sound designable function: FRP tube may be made according to various necessity of users, such as various stream, strain, buried depth and burden using. It may be produced as various stress and strength degree.

7 Very low routine maintenance expense: determined by the erosion and friction durability, freezing and dust defending, there exists no must avert rust, dust, and acquire dielectric steps or good quality checking. The earth burying isn’t going to require the cathodic defense. That will preserve the project routine maintenance fee by over 70%.

8 Sound friction toughness feature: h2o with significant quantity of mud and Portable spot welder might be taken to check the rotating and damage situation of tube. After the rotating by 3 million times, we will check the friction condition of internal tube as follows: 0.53mm to the metal tube with tar and enamel coating, 0.52mm for your a single with tar epoxy coating, 0.21mm for the 1 through surficial solidifying answer. If that’s the case, which will illustrate the sound anti-durability feature of FRP.

9 Wonderful dielectric heating feature: FRP is semi-conductor. The dielectric characteristic of pipe is sound. The dielectric resistance is among 1012 to 1015Ω.cm. It truly is quite suitable for sending electricity. The heat transferring coefficient during the crowd telecommunication wire zone and multi-mine field is quite small by only 0.23. That is 5 thousandth of steel. The temperature keeping characteristic of tube is perfect.

10 Large transferring capacity with tiny friction: the internal wall of FRP tube is easy, and the toughness and friction resistant pressure are quite small. Thus, FRP tube can obviously reduce the liquid pressure loss within the path and enhance the sending ability.

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U.s. Iron And Steel Products In China Next Block Or Tube Steel – Tube Steel, Iron And Steel Products

Sunday, November 30th, 2014

Seamless steel pipe, oil well pipes, drill pipe, wire shelves … … New Year begins, the U.S. iron and steel products to contain China’s “iron curtain” keep growing. Chinese steel product export enterprises worried.

Who is next? Local time on January 5, U.S. Department of Commerce announced that the value of imports from China will be more than 300 million U.S. dollars of steel wire shelves initial charge from 43 to 289 percent anti-dumping duties. The day before, the United Steelworkers and the four U.S. companies to anti-dumping anti-subsidy (dual) to investigate a request made on the drill pipe collection from 109 to 274 percent of the tariff.

The last three months, the U.S. has been investigating the use of dual weapons, China’s steel product exports to the U.S. took turns beating.

1 6, the domestic steel information portal to my director Xu Xiangchun steel mesh to the newspaper Information, said: Pipe class products subject to future investigations the possibility of dual is still high. In fact, the hardest hit pipe products precisely because of China’s leading steel product exports to the U.S.. According to my steel web statistics, from January to November 2009, China’s steel product exports to the U.S. list of the championship are all tube Class: seamless tube 40.1 million tons, steel pipe fittings, tube sets for the 143 thousand tons.

Xuxiang Chun said: “Those who occupy the market segment in the U.S. high share of steel products is also very dangerous.”

Pipe exports to the U.S. or by “burning bridges”
2009 years, the United States in the high frequency of dual investigations against the wide range of rarely seen in recent years, but dual investigation, “conviction” that the United States “iron curtain” of the extension direction there are still traces to follow.

Pipe products in 2010 against the U.S. pair of high-risk areas surveyed. Xu Xiangchun told this newspaper that, “In the recent U.S. steel products of pairs of anti-investigation, pipe products are the hardest hit, in the new year, suffered another pipe products against the U.S. dual high possibility.”

Early as November 5, 2009, the U.S. Department of Commerce announced on the oil pipe on dual anti-dumping case, the preliminary ruling, affirmed that China exports to the U.S. oil pipe product dumping, imposition of 10.36% -15.78% punitive tariffs. December 31, 2009, the U.S. International Trade Commission endorsed the decision.

Xu Xiangchun to the newspaper stressed that the reason why a pair of pipe products against the hardest hit because before this round of financial crisis, U.S. domestic oil industry has experienced a boom on the oil well pipe, oil pipe products Demand soared, more than its domestic production capacity, which leads to a large number of Chinese products into the U.S. market.

Therefore, “the causal relationship must be clear.” Xu Xiangchun told this newspaper that was the United States take the initiative to introduce Chinese products, and in severe recession today, but in turn, blame the Chinese pipe products dumping the U.S. market is no different from burning bridges. In addition, Xu Xiangchun Journalists from China’s iron and steel products accounted for U.S. market share on the start, pre-sentence investigation against the United States two main objectives of the future.

Dual investigation, according to prosecution and trial procedures, when a product segment in the United States to occupy a sufficient share of influence, the prosecution prove that the impact of the United States constitute the domestic industry, U.S. Department of Commerce and International Trade Office of the final determination will be set up dual judgments, imposing extra duties.

Xuxiang Chun said that from that point, China’s steel producers and exporters now need to check their exports to the U.S. product catalog, if a product has been occupied in the high share of the market segments, and now it is necessary vigilance.

Never give a trade war

Frequent outbreaks of dual investigation, has disrupted the domestic steel industry people.

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Concept of Open tube Manometer (FLS10XA)

Sunday, July 13th, 2014

Concept of Open tube Manometer (FLS10XA)

Open tube manometer – principle and working of the apparatus, measurement of pressure. Watch thousands of videos and learn Physics in an easy manner! Visit h…
Video Rating: 5 / 5

What is the use Of U tube manometer?

Tuesday, May 20th, 2014

Question by raymond n: What is the use Of U tube manometer?
What is the working principle of a U tube manometer, where can you apply the knowledge in measuring the difference between two sources using the apparatus?

Best answer:

Answer by Sam

Add your own answer in the comments!

About Tube packages

Tuesday, April 22nd, 2014

Most modern tubes have glass envelopes, but metal, fused quartz (silica), and ceramic have also been used. The first version of the 6L6 used a metal envelope sealed with glass beads, while a glass disk fused to the metal was used in later versions. Metal and ceramic are used almost exclusively for power tubes above 2 kW dissipation. The nuvistor was a modern receiving tube using a very small metal and ceramic package. where to buy cheap LED Strip? Lightereryday is a good choice.

Tubes have always had their internal elements connected to external circuitry using pins at their base which plug into a socket. After all, tubes needed to be replaced rather frequently unlike modern semiconductor devices which are mostly soldered in place. Subminiature tubes were produced using wire leads rather than sockets, however these were restricted to rather specialized applications. In addition to the connections at the base of the tube, many early triodes connected the grid using a metal cap at the top of the tube; this was done in order to reduce stray capacitance between the grid and the plate leads. Tube caps were also used for the plate (anode) connection, particularly in transmitting tubes and tubes using a very high plate voltage.

High power tubes such as transmitting tubes have packages designed more to enhance heat transfer. In some tubes, the metal envelope is also the anode. The 4CX1000A is an external anode tube of this sort. Air is blown through an array of fins attached to the anode, thus cooling it. Power tubes using this cooling scheme are available up to 150 kW dissipation. Above that level, water or water-vapor cooling are used. The highest-power tube currently available is the Eimac 4CM2500KG, a forced water-cooled power tetrode capable of dissipating 2.5 megawatts.

(By comparison, the largest power transistor can only dissipate about 1 kilowatt.)

In many cases manufacturers and the military gave tubes designations which said nothing about their purpose (e.g., 1614). In the early days some manufacturers used proprietary names which might convey some information, but only about their products; the KT66 and KT88 were “Kinkless Tetrodes”. Later, consumer tubes were given names which conveyed some information. In the US names comprise a number, followed by one or two letters, and a number. The first number is the (rounded) heater voltage; the letters designate a particular tube but say nothing about its structure; and the final number is the total number of electrodes (without distinguishing between, say, a tube with many electrodes, or two sets of electrodes in a single envelope—a double triode, for example). For example the 12AX7 is a double triode (two sets of three electrodes plus heater) with a 12.6V heater (which, as it happens, can also be connected to run from 6.3V). The “AX” has no meaning.

A system widely used in Europe known as the Mullard-Philips tube designation, also extended to transistors, uses a letter, followed by one or more further letters, and a number. The type designator specifies the heater voltage or current, the functions of all sections of the tube, the socket type, and of course identifies the particular tube. In this system special-quality tubes (e.g., for long-life computer use) are indicated by moving the number immediately after the first letter: the E83CC is a special-quality equivalent of the ECC83 (the European equivalent of the 12AX7), the E55L a power pentode with no consumer equivalent. recommend directory: 5050 SMD Flexible Strip with waterproof 5 Meter 300 LEDS.

Some special-purpose tubes are constructed with particular gases in the envelope. For instance, voltage regulator tubes contain various inert gases such as argon, helium or neon, and take advantage of the fact that these gases will ionize at predictable voltages. The thyratron is a special-purpose tube filled with low-pressure gas or mercury vapor. Like vacuum tubes, it contains a hot cathode and an anode, but also a control electrode which behaves somewhat like the grid of a triode. When the control electrode starts conduction, the gas ionizes after which the control electrode no longer can stop the current; the tube “latches” into conduction. Removing anode (plate) voltage lets the gas de-ionize, restoring its non-conductive state. Some thyratrons can carry large currents for their physical size. One example is the miniature type 2D21, often seen in 1950s jukeboxes as control switches for relays. A cold-cathode version of the thyratron, which uses a pool of mercury for its cathode, is called an ignitron; some can switch thousands of amperes. Thyratrons containing hydrogen have a very consistent time delay between their turn-on pulse and full conduction; they behave much like modern silicon-controlled rectifiers, also called thyristors due to their functional similarity to thyratrons. Thyratrons have long been used in radar transmitters.

An extremely specialized tube is the krytron, which is used for extremely precise and rapid high-voltage switching. Krytons with certain specifications are suitable to initiate the precise sequence of detonations used to set off a nuclear weapon, and are heavily controlled at an international level.

X-ray tubes are used in medical imaging among other uses. X-ray tubes used for continuous duty operation in fluoroscopy and CT imaging equipment may use a focused cathode and a rotating anode to dissipate the large amounts of heat thereby generated. They are housed in an aluminum housing which is filled with oil for cooling.

The photomultiplier tube is an extremely sensitive detector of light, which uses the photoelectric effect and secondary emission, rather than thermionic emission, to generate and amplify electrical signals. Nuclear medicine imaging equipment and liquid scintillation counters use photomultiplier tube arrays to detect low-intensity scintillation due to ionizing radiation. recommend directory: 48cm 30LEDS SMD3528 LED Light Bar.

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