Posts Tagged ‘measurement’


Making the right choice in Laser Measurement Devices

Monday, August 7th, 2017

We rely on modern technology especially now that we are living in such an advanced world.  Instruments like laser devices can give you very precise results when used to inspecting areas that are hard to measure accurately using other measuring devices.

 

Choosing the right laser device for measuring is important.  It would save you time and money when you fully understand which device will best suit your needs.  First off, you need to determine how you plan to use it.  You should know if you are going to use it outside or inside.  Determine the distance as well.  For example, check if it is going to be used infrequently and in an environment that would note exceed 150 feet and mostly indoors.

 

There are specifications that should be considered.  One of them is Range.  This is usually stated by feet or meters.  It is usually the maximum distance that the unit is measured to a target under ideal conditions.  Ranges vary from 100 feet to 600 feet.

 

Laser device manufacturers do not specify the range if it is without a reflective target plate.  This varies according to the conditions.  Without a target, the practical range is 50 feet on older and less expensive models.  Newer models can measure up until 300 feet.

 

Accuracy is the degree of conformity of a calculated or measured value to its actual or specific value, or the maximum amount of its deviation of the calculated value from the specified physical strength of the item that is being measured.  Most true laser measurement device are accurate within +/-1/8″.

 

Most new units are smaller and also lighter.  There are more features than prior models of laser measurement device.  Smaller models have basic features on measurement.  These are so small that it easily fits in a shirt pocket.

 

So before you purchase a laser measurement device, consider these specifications to be certain that you are getting the correct instrument.  Failing to do so might make you get measurements that are incorrect.  It is important to know all the conditions in terms of the use of a measuring device.  Online information is available to help you make that decision.  Taking time to read and research will save you more time and energy than you could ever imagine.

Come to http://www.cmmxyz.com and see how we can work for you.

Concern: The Virtual Test And Measurement Instruments Become The Mainstream Industry – Virtual

Sunday, May 21st, 2017

Since the twentieth century, since the mid-eighties, virtual instrument technology has been combined with a modular hardware, development software and PC technology, which enables users to create custom software instruments. Software-defined functions than the vendor-defined way of desktop devices for greater flexibility, and because PC-based technology, they are able to achieve faster advanced features.

Now in test applications using virtual instrument technology has become mainstream. Most testing industry has accepted the concept of virtual instrumentation, or a preference for virtual instrumentation. For example, a representative of the U.S. military, though not the leader in technology trends, but also in widespread use of virtual instrumentation. As the world’s largest ATE (Automated Test Equipment) independent users, the U.S. Department of Defense has in their comprehensive instrument to promote the use of the concept of software-based devices. Report to Congress, the Defense Ministry said: “In the development of integrated devices, with the commercialization of new technologies in real time to configure the instrument to achieve a variety of testing capabilities …… a single integrated device can replace multiple independent function of the instrument, thus reducing the volume of logistical equipment and to address the problem of aging equipment. “[February 2002, the Ministry of Defence Office of the technical improvement report to Congress]. Integrated instrument and virtual instrument technology with commercial hardware and software processing features, these two together can create user-defined instrument.

Present, thousands of major companies have started using virtual instrumentation. Detection only in the production, like Lexmark, Motorola, Delphi, ABB and Philips have these industry leaders in key projects, large-scale product test applications using virtual instrumentation hardware and software. In the industrial field, the virtual instrument technology has been used for automation of oil drilling and refining, production of machine control, and even nuclear reactor control.

The problems of traditional instruments and innovators
ClaytonChristensen of the same name as described in the book, traditional instruments will suffer in the meantime, “innovators of the problem.” Christensen is described this phenomenon: the new breakthrough technology will change the market outlook and ultimately overthrow the market leader position. In fact, Christensen that the market leader in new technologies is very difficult to reverse after leading the market up. In test and measurement field, the traditional instruments by using the existing structure to improve the measurement performance and continuous innovation along this direction. In the early days of virtual instrumentation, measurement of performance because of its relatively low, so in this case, the breakthrough technology with traditional instrumentation, and without much threat, so they largely ignored the virtual instrument technology existence. However, the twentieth century, the late eighties and early nineties, the virtual instrument technology been applied to measure the need for flexibility, which are applied by conventional methods can not be achieved. To the late nineties and the twenty-first century, with the PC processor and the commercialization of semiconductor performance and further improve the accuracy of the virtual instrument technology, measuring performance has improved much more than the original. Now, the virtual instrument technology and performance of traditional instruments of measurement equal to or exceed them, but also has a higher data rate, flexibility, scalability, and lower system cost.

In the consumer goods market in order to prove the “innovators problems” this principle, we can compare MP3 and traditional broadcast media such as CD. The beginning of the traditional audio equipment manufacturers are not aware of the threat of MP3 player?? After all, MP3 sound quality decreased, and when you need to play PC and specialized software. On the other hand, CD player, is easy to use and have a special user interface (buttons and knobs). However, due to sharing of MP3 and portable with easy-to-edge, so despite its shortcomings, is still in the early birth praised by some users. Over time, MP3 quality has been acceptable and MP3 player software has also been a great development. MP3 has become mainstream now, and the traditional audio recording and playback industry caused a great threat. Although many traditional player manufacturers through the development of the final player with MP3 function to shift to this breakthrough technology (Sony recently introduced a MP3Walkman), but the new market has been the first introduction of MP3 technology, led the company. For example, Apple has captured the hard disk based music player sales, 82% [NPD, 2004 8 months].

In test and measurement market, an industry leader Agilent has also introduced the concept of virtual instrumentation. For example, Agilent recently introduced products include a set of Ethernet-based “integrated equipment” and is compatible with PXI arbitrary waveform generator, and the industry-standard PXI is the platform for virtual instrumentation. Agilent’s JohnStratton also recently expressed support for software-defined and comprehensive equipment concept: “and the current standard use of rack solutions, another option is to use the integrated devices. Integrated device uses software algorithms and hardware modules to replace the separate The test unit. “[the military and aerospace electronics, June 2004]. In a recent investor conference, the Agilent’s chief operating officer BillSullivan proposed, “to use the software-based modular instrumentation configuration, allowing users to easily configure and re-use to repeat, it will be testing and measuring the direction of future development . “

PC performance and reduce cost innovation
In the past two decades, PC’s performance has improved 10,000-fold, not to any other business of technology there had been such a high performance growth. As the use of virtual instrumentation for measurement of PC processors, each with the emergence of a new generation of PC processors, the use of virtual instrument technology new applications can be achieved. For example, the current 3GHzPC can be used to carry out complex analysis of frequency domain and modulation for use in communications test applications. Using the 1990 PC (Intel386/16), 65,000 points of the FFT (Fast Fourier Transform for spectral analysis of the basic measurement) needs 1100 seconds. And now the P4 3.4GHz computer using the FFT to achieve the same offer just 0.8 seconds [Ffbench, JohnWalker].

At the same time, hard disk, display, and bus bandwidth has a similar performance improvement. A new generation of high-speed PC bus bandwidth can provide up to PCIExpress 3.2GBytes / s, which can be used PC architecture to achieve high bandwidth measurements. Some companies claim to be giving way to high-speed internal bus such as Ethernet and

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Photogrammetry Measurement

Saturday, February 18th, 2017

Photogrammetry is a scientific method of measurements using photography. In essence, it is a measurement technology using the three-dimensional coordinates of points on an object are established through measurements taken using several (two to three) photographic images taken from different angles. The outcome is a map or drawing or a 3-dimensional model of an actual object or a scene. Most of the maps available today are creation of Photogrammetry or aerial photos taken using aircraft. Also, it can be considered as a reverse process which convert the 2-dimensional photograph to a 3-D image.

Photogrammetry is useful:
• to establish coordinates of the required object-points
• preparation of topographical and thematically maps
• developing rectified photographs or ortho-photos.photogram

The significant feature of photogrammetry is that without touching the objects measurements could be done. Another form of photogrammetry is Remote Sensing which was mainly focused on working with aerial photography and satellite imaging. On broader sense, it is used for object interpretation and object measurement. More precisely, the Aerial photogrammetry is mainly used to produce topographical or thematical maps or digital terrain models. The photogrammetry is very popular among architects, civil engineers, archaeologist, police and military establishments.

The photogrammetry can be classified into two areas:

1. Far range and Close range photogrammetry. The far and close range depends on the camera lens setting. For example, for close range, the lens setting is kept at finite values and whereas for far range the lens is adjusted to infinite or indefinite setting.

2. The Aerial photogrammetry can be considered as far range, on the other hand, the Terrestrial Photogrammetry is used for close range. In Aerial Photogrammetry the camera is fixed to an aircraft and is adjusted vertically or towards the ground. Several multiple overlapping photographs of the ground are captured when the aircraft glides along a flight path. Once the aerial photos are taken, these photos have to be processed using a stereo-plotter (which is an instrument that will allow viewer to see two photos simultaneously in a stereo view). These photos are also used to create Digital Elevation Model (DEM) using a process.

In close range Photogrammetry the camera is held close to the object and is usually it is hand held or mounted on a tripod. The close range is commonly used for non-topographic surveys. In other words, it is used to produce drawings or 3-D Models and cannot be considered producing topographic maps or terrain models. This type is commonly used (with normal cameras) to model buildings, engineering structures, Vehicles, films, etc.

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Frequency Measurement Based On Virtual Instrument Software System Design – The Electronics Industry

Monday, January 16th, 2017

Introduction Including ballistic radar speed, we must complete the projectile velocity measurements, Doppler velocimetry under the principle of the need for measuring the Doppler frequency estimation, while the frequency estimation is a classic signal parameter estimation problem. At home and abroad have made a lot of ways, the main and sometimes domain, spectral estimation method and time of a frequency domain, time domain method in which a number of cycles the main zero-crossing detection method and two, the main disadvantage is low accuracy; and Time frequency domain method of a main short time Fourier transform, Wigner distribution of a Virgin, while the calculation generally higher, difficult to complete real-time processing.

In addition, the development of virtual instruments with the aid of their good man-machine interface and powerful signal processing, signal processing platform for the construction are also becoming a trend. In essence, the virtual instrument is the instrument technology and computer technology combined with deep product, it stressed that “software is the instrument” concept that allows users to define their own needs instrument function, they need to better set up a test system . It is based on signal processing and acquisition (ADC), data analysis and processing (DSP), the results of the output (DAC) and display the structure model of a common signal processing hardware platform, in this general signal processing hardware platform, called different test software on different functions of the apparatus constitutes a [1]. Based on this, this virtual instrument platform, combined with the power spectrum estimation and the combination of measurement frequency measurement, frequency measurement system for the design.

1 Frequency Measurement Often, as a useful signal and noise spectral characteristics are different, power spectrum estimation method is a noise background in the extraction of useful signals (eg sine wave) is an effective way. In view of this, the Doppler frequency measurement, data can be collected before the power spectrum analysis, and then measuring frequency by frequency domain methods to obtain complete Doppler frequency. In the power spectrum analysis can be divided into the classical and modern spectral estimation spectral estimation, classical spectral estimation method typical of a periodogram, Welch law; and modern spectral estimation methods are typical of AR model method, MA modeling, ARMA model method, entropy method, maximum likelihood and characteristics of decomposition method. Frequency Domain Frequency Measurement There are energy center of gravity method, peak search procedure, by choosing a different power spectrum analysis and frequency domain methods of measuring frequency combination, can achieve the purpose of measuring signal frequency.

1.1 Welch power spectrum estimation
Towel in the classical power spectrum estimation, using direct periodogram estimate of spectral properties is often not good, mainly relatively large fluctuations in the spectrum, the variance is relatively large. Welch method can be improved by direct periodogram estimate the variance of spectral features. The basic idea is to use sub-windowing method to a data length N XN (n) into L segments, length of M, and allow each section of data, some overlapping, were calculated for each section of the power spectrum Pi ( ), then average them to obtain the average power spectrum after , Namely:

Known under the theory of probability and statistics: Using the Welch method to estimate the variance of power spectrum is roughly a direct estimate of the spectrum of the variance of 1 / L, and the section the more the smaller variance, but the frequency resolution the lower the deviation becomes larger. So, in actual use should take into account the requirements of the variance and resolution selection of appropriate values of L and M [2].

1.2 AR model spectrum estimation method
AR model spectrum estimation method to do the principle is: the analysis assumes that the signal x (n) is a mean square error for the White noise (n) excited linear shift invariant system H (x) (or AR model) are available, the analysis of the signal power spectrum is estimated at:

Where: Input sequence variance, n1, a2 … …, ap for the parameters to be estimated [3-4]. functionImgZoom (Id) / / re-set the picture size to prevent bursting form (var w = $ (Id). width; var m = 650; if (w

2 Frequency Measurement System 2.1 virtual instrument front panel design

Start LabVIEW, select the option to open a new panel, and then use C0ntrols template control object (controls) and display objects (indications) to create a graphical user interface (ie front panel) [5]. In the frequency measurement system design, based on the frequency of measurement, the front panel includes signal generating module, power spectrum estimation module, the frequency measurement module and results display module of four parts, design of the interface shown in Figure 1.

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Making The Right Choice In Laser Measurement Devices

Sunday, November 13th, 2016

We rely on modern technology especially now that we are living in such an advanced world. Instruments like laser devices can give you very precise results when used to inspecting areas that are hard to measure accurately using other measuring devices.

Choosing the right laser device for measuring is important. It would save you time and money when you fully understand which device will best suit your needs. First off, you need to determine how you plan to use it. You should know if you are going to use it outside or inside. Determine the distance as well. For example, check if it is going to be used infrequently and in an environment that would note exceed 150 feet and mostly indoors.

There are specifications that should be considered. One of them is Range. This is usually stated by feet or meters. It is usually the maximum distance that the unit is measured to a target under ideal conditions. Ranges vary from 100 feet to 600 feet.

Laser device manufacturers do not specify the range if it is without a reflective target plate. This varies according to the conditions. Without a target, the practical range is 50 feet on older and less expensive models. Newer models can measure up until 300 feet.

Accuracy is the degree of conformity of a calculated or measured value to its actual or specific value, or the maximum amount of its deviation of the calculated value from the specified physical strength of the item that is being measured. Most true laser measurement device are accurate within +/-1/8.

Most new units are smaller and also lighter. There are more features than prior models of laser measurement device. Smaller models have basic features on measurement. These are so small that it easily fits in a shirt pocket.

So before you purchase a laser measurement device, consider these specifications to be certain that you are getting the correct instrument. Failing to do so might make you get measurements that are incorrect. It is important to know all the conditions in terms of the use of a measuring device. Online information is available to help you make that decision. Taking time to read and research will save you more time and energy than you could ever imagine.

Come to http://www.cmmxyz.com and see how we can work for you.

Salinity Measurement

Saturday, September 17th, 2016

Measurement of the level of salinity in soy sauce, ketchup, dressing, soup, seasonings, pickled juices of vegetables, etc. is indispensible for quality control.  One of the key factors in producing these products is maintaining consistency between batches of their product for quality control and process control.  In order to keep this consistency the manufacture needs to test the product to determine the total concentration of salt.  Highly concentrated samples such as soy sauce need to be diluted so that the value reads lower than 6% before testing the sample.

Various types of saltmeters can also be used for testing the concentration of natural or artificial seawater in marine research, fishery research, fish farms, fish tanks and aquarium management.  Moreover they are used for controlling the concentration of saltwater used for preserving fish, meat, cheese, etc.  When measuring natural seawater you have to take into account other various kinds of salty ingredients such as magnesium chloride, calcium sulfate and magnesium sulfate contained in natural seawater.  The measurement value of seawater expresses the total content of these salty ingredients in the value.

The principle of electric conductivity is applied in the detection of salt, thus a digital salinity tester measures the exact level of salt without being influenced by other ingredients in the product.  Digital salinity refractometers have the advantage of a digital readout, and do not allow for “tester interpretation” of an analogue readout.

Salinity can also be tested on an analogue hand held saltmeter.  These instruments can have extra features such as Automatic Temperature Compensation (ATC) to correct for changes in ambient temperature, or testing scales for sodium chloride or specific gravity.  Hand held salinity refractometers are read by holding them up to a light source and interpreting where a line falls on a scale.

Examples of digital saltmeters are the ATAGO EX-421 saltmeter RE-100SA or PAL-03S (a pocket sized instrument designed for field use).  ATAGO also offers analogue units in the Master S28a or S28M, Master-S/Mill-a, Master-S/Mill-aM, Master S-10A and Master S-10M.  As a world leader in the production of refractometers, ATAGO products are well-trusted for their accuracy and ease of use.

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Digital Multimeter – In-depth measurement of a device

Thursday, August 4th, 2016

The ultra modern Digital Multimeter is highly accurate. It is durable and consists of many more features as well than earlier multi meters. When testing with a digital multimeter, the user receives signals as numbers. It converts signals gained from the devices checked to voltages and convertes them to digits through electronic circuits based on pre-arranged software program. For this task, digital multimeter receives support from an inbuilt small computer.

People use Digital Mutimeters to measure voltage, current, resistant, short connections, as well as Transistor hFE values. For example, when there is to measure a potential voltage drop between two points, the two wires of the multimeter should be connected to the two points where the potential voltage drop is evident.

Before applying it, the pointer of the Digital Multimeter should be pointed to V sign. The user could select any value between 0 to 1000V. However the range should not exceed the maximum of its circuit value. Exceeding the value of the circuit may damage the digital multimeter. If the measurement was between 0-20V, the V value should be pointed to 20V. When it is set, the Digital Multimeter can show all the values up to 20V.

Proper maintenance of a digital multimeter is vital to have accurate measurements. In addition, the user should know how to avoid probable self-accidents while handling it. The first time digital multimeter users should read the user manuals of the multi meters that they are going to use. Every manual has sections on safety warnings and special attention should be given to it before using a digital multimeter for the first time.

This type of testing devices should be connected to accurate power supplies and voltage rates to avoid accidental fires, shocks etc. The right voltage etc is given in the user manual. It is imperative to check for broken places, loose leads clips, etc., of the digital multimeter before a testing. It is recommended not to use digital multimeters with split cases, broken leads chips etc. The users must protect their digital multimeter from extreme temperatures, moisture and sunlight. When they are exposed to such conditions, they may get irreparable dysfunctions. When testing power circuits with a digital multimeter, the user should not touch exposed wires, joints and live circuits to avoid fatal accidents.  

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Electrical safety performance measurement instrument

Friday, May 6th, 2016

Using the rapid advancement of cutting-edge science and technologies, several electric and electronic equipment comprehensive into each and every realm of social life, and grow to be a significant symbol of social civilization and progress. In our country, the people’s regular of living rises ceaselessly, household electric appliances towards the growing demand. All sorts of electric and electronic equipment in urban and rural locations across the nation and to the rapid popularization, brought great convenience to production. But all forms of electric and electronic equipment vastly utilized, consequently bring accidents has been drastically increased.

Bring harm to life and property, get an electric shock casualties and electrical fire is actually a common example. For that reason, electrical appliances, electronic equipment use safety of this critical problems, be decided in all of the elements of product high quality in the first location, safety standards as the most crucial one of the technical standards. Avoid to obtain an electric shock gas may be the most basic of all safety standards is the most crucial content material, in most cases as a product safety very first. Electrical safety efficiency test items consist of: voltage resistance test, leakage current tester , insulation resistance, and grounding resistance test.

Since 70 s, various specialized in all styles of electronic, electrical device products electrical safety performance test instrument rapid development, formed a new electronic instrument categories. electrical safety tester performance test apparatus could be the growth and development of the domestic and international safety standards to carry out the inevitable result. Considering that IEC65 rd notice the power grid energy provide household and comparable general use electronic and relevant equipment safety needs, “for the first time in 1952 and following five edition, issued by seven times given that revised worldwide, has formed the IEC safety standards and America UL safety regular two method. Since the 70 s in China began to make all styles of safety standards. 80 s rapidly formed by the IEC safety standards or equivalent of national common program. electrical safety tester performance test within the electronic measurement instruments, broadcasting radio, tv, all types of audio and video equipment and electrical domestic appliances goods, low voltage electric appliance, electronics, electrical appliances product design, fabrication, inspection, finalize the style, good quality authentication as well as the import and export, and so on, strive in each and every work, first became must, a large number of essential projects, typically, the related particular test instrument demands, make electrical safety efficiency test apparatus has a profound exhibition basis and broad marketplace.

Electrical safety efficiency test instrument technology index depends entirely on safety standards specifications and regulations, test object except the types of electronic items, throughout all the energy provide or perhaps a designated rated ac/dc power provide of low voltage electrical equipment, this is the electrical safety performance test equipment for all styles of electronic measuring instrument differences of characteristics. As a result, the development of instrument depends on the growth of the safety standards.

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Temperature Transmitter offers non-intrusive measurement.

Tuesday, March 15th, 2016

Temperature Transmitter offers non-intrusive measurement.
AUSTIN, TEXAS — Emerson Process Management introduces Rosemount X-well Technology, a surface sensing temperature measurement solution that eliminates the need for thermowell process penetration when measuring process temperatures in pipe …
Read more on ThomasNet News (press release) (blog)

Seismometer and structural vibration meter
This Design Idea demonstrates the use of a TI LDC1000 as a sub-micron displacement sensor for vibration measurement and logging in seismic and structural mechanics applications, and also as the feedback sensing element for active suspension …
Read more on EDN.com

Minimize measurement errors in RTD circuits

Sunday, February 28th, 2016

Minimize measurement errors in RTD circuits
For a typical platinum resistor, the temperature range is -200˚C to 850˚C. The most common RTD is the Pt100, which has a resistance of 100 Ω at 0˚C. Generally, RTDs generate more stable and repeatable outputs compared to thermocouples and thermistors.
Read more on EDN.com

Checking of thermocouple and platinum resistance thermometer (Pt100) sensors
When temperature sensors must be routinely checked and/or calibrated in accordance with in-house quality procedures or other, national standards, there are various ways of achieving such compliance. These typically involve sending the sensors to an …
Read more on Engineer Live

GEFRAN – NOUVEAUTÉ : contrôleur de température mono-boucle by GEFRAN
L'entrée mesure principale est universelle et permet de raccorder de nombreux types de capteurs: thermocouples J, K, R, S, T, B, E, N, Ni-Ni18Mo, L; résistance thermométrique Pt100 3 fils; résistance CTP; entrées linéaires 0-50mV, 10-50mV, 2-10V, 0-10V …
Read more on Directindustry (Communiqué de presse)